GATE EC – 2001 Electronics and Communication Engineering Question Paper
SECTION – A
1. This question consists of TWENTY-FIVE sub-questions (1.1 – 1.25) of ONE mark each. For each of these sub-questions, four possible alternatives (A,B, C and D) are given, out of which ONLY ONE is correct. Indicate the correct answer by darkening the appropriate bubble against the question number on the left hand side of the Objective Response Sheet (ORS). You may use the answer book provided for any rough work, if needed.
1.1 The voltage e in figure 1.1 is
1.2. If each branch of a Delta circuit has impedance then each branch of the equivalent Wye circuit has impedance.
1.3. The transfer function of a system is given by H s = The impulse response of the system is: (* denotes convolution, and U(t) is unit step function)
1.4. The admittance parameter Y in the 2-port network in Figure 1.4 is
(a) -0.2 mho
(b) 0.1 mho
(c) -0.05 mho
(d) 0.05 mho
1.5. The region of convergence of the z-transform of a unit step function is
(a) 1 z (b) 1
(c) (Real part of z) > 0 (d) (Real part of z) < 0
1.6. The current gain of a BJT is
1.7. MOSFET can be used as a
(a) current controlled capacitor (b) voltage controlled capacitor
(c) current controlled inductor (d) voltage controlled inductor
1.8. The effective channel length of a MOSFET in saturation decreases with increase in
(a) gate voltage (b) drain voltage
(c) source voltage (d) body voltage
1.9. The ideal OP-AMP has the following characteristics.
1.10. The 2‘s complement representation of 17 is
(a) 01110 (b) 01111 (c) 11110 (d) 10001
1.11. Consider the following two statements:
Statement 1: A stable multi-vibrator can be used for generating square wave.
Statement 2: B stable multi-vibrator can be used for storing binary information.
(a) Only statement 1 is correct
(b) Only statement 2 is correct
(c) Both the statements 1 and 2 are correct
(d) Both the statements 1 and 2 are incorrect
1.12. For the ring oscillator shown in Figure 1.12, the propagation delay of each inverter is 100 pico second. What is the fundamental frequency of the oscillator output?
(a) 10 MHz
(b) 100 MHz
(c) 1 GHz
(d) 2 GHz
1.13. An 8085 microprocessor based system uses a 4K × 8-bit RAM whose starting address is AA00. The address of the last byte in this RAM is
(a) 0FFFH (b) 1000 H (c) B9FF H (d) BA00 H
1.14. The equivalent of the block diagram in Figure 1.14 is given in
15. If the characteristic equation of a closed-loop system is s s + + = 2 2 0 , then the system is
(a) over damped (b) critically damped
(c) underdamped (d) undamped
1.16. The root-locus diagram for a closed loop feedback system is shown in Figure . The system is overdamped.
(a) only if 0 = K = 1
(b) only if 1 < K < 5
(c) only if K > 5
(d) if 0 = K < 1 or K > 5
1.17. The Nyquist plot for the open-loop transfer function G(s) of a unity negative feedback system is shown in figure 1.17 if G(s) has no pole in the right half of s-plane, the number of roots of the system characteristic equation in the right half
of s-plane is
1.18. Let d (t) denote the delta function. The value of the integral t dt cos 2 is
(a) 1 (b) -1 (c) 0 (d) 2
1.19. A band limited signal is sampled at the Nyquist rate. The signal can be recovered by passing the samples through
(a) an RC filter (b) an envelope detector
(c) a PLL
(d) an ideal low-pass filter with appropriate bandwidth
1.20. The PDF of a Gaussian random variable X is given by P x e =
1.21. If a signal f(t) has energy E, the energy of the signal f(2t) is equal to
E (c) 2E (d) 4E
(a) E (b) 2
1.22. A transmission line is distortion-less if
(a) 1 RL GC = (b) RL = GC (c) LG = RC (d) RG = LC
1.23. If a plane electromagnetic wave satisfies the equation = c , the wave propagates in the
(a) x-direction (b) z-direction
(d) xy plane at an angle of 45° between the x and z directions
1.24. The phase velocity of waves propagating in a hollow metal waveguide is
(a) greater than the velocity of light in free space.
(b) less than the velocity of light in free space.
(c) equal to the velocity of light in free space.
(d) equal to the group velocity.
1.25. The dominant mode in a rectangular waveguide is TE , because this mode has
(a) no attenuation (b) no cut-off
(c) no magnetic field component (d) the highest cut-off wavelength
2. This question consists of TWENTY-FIVE sub-questions (2.1 œ 2.25) of TWO marks each. For each of these sub-questions, four possible alternatives (A, B, C and D) are given, out of which ONLY ONE is correct. Indicate the correct answer by darkening the appropriate bubble against the question number on the left hand side of the Objective Response Sheet (ORS). You may use the answer book provided for any rough work, if needed. 2
2.1 The voltage e in figure 2.1 is (a) 48 V (b) 24
(c) 36 V (d) 28 V
2.2. In figure 2.2, the value of the load resistor R which maximizes the power delivered to it is
2.3. When the angular frequency in Figure 2.3 is varied from 0 to 8 , the locus of the current phasor I is given by
2.4 The Z parameters Z and Z for the 2-port network in figure 2.4 are
2.5 An npn BJT has g = 38m A/V, C =10 F, C =4 × 10 F, and DC current gain ß = – 14 – 13
2.6 The transistor shunt regulator shown in Figure 2.6 has a regulated output voltage of 10 V, when the input varies from 20 V to 30 V. The relevant V parameters for the Zener diode Z and the transistor are: V = V =20. Neglect the current through R . Then the maximum power dissipated in the Zener diode (P ) and the transistor (P ) are
(a) P =75mW, P =7.9W (b) P =85mW, P =8.9W
(c) P =95mW, P =9.9W (d) P =115mW, P =11.9W
2.7 The oscillator circuit shown in Figure 2.7 is
(a) Hartley oscillator with f MHz = 79.6
(b) Colpitts oscillator with f MHz = 79.6
(c) Hartley oscillator with f MHz = 159.2
(d) Colpitts oscillator with f MHz = 159.2
2.8 The inverting OP-AMP shown in Figure 2.8 has an open-loop gain of 100. The closed loop gain
(a) -8 (b) -9 (c) -10 (d) -11
2.9 In Figure 2.9, assume the OP-AMPs to be ideal. The output v of the circuit is:
2.10 In Figure 2.10, the LED
(a) emits light when both S and S are closed.
(b) emits light when both S and S are open.
(c) emits light when only S or S is closed.
(d) does not emit light, irrespective of the switch positions.
2.11 In the TTL circuit in Figure 2.11, S to S are select lines and X and X are input lines. S and X are LSBs. The output Y is
(a) indeterminate (b) A B
(c) A B (d) C A B C A B
2.12 The digital block in figure 2.12 is realized using two positive edge triggered D-flip-flops. Assume that for t < t , Q = Q =0. The circuit in the digital block is given by:
(a) Figure 2.12 (a) (b) Figure 2.12 (b)
(c) Figure 2.12 (c) (d) Figure 2.12 (d)
2.13 In the DRAM cell in Figure 2.13, the V of the NMOSFET is 1 V. For the following three combinations of WL and BL voltages.
Word Line (WL)
(a) 5 V; 3V; 7V (b) 4 V; 3V; 4V (c) 5 V; 5V; 5V (d) 4 V; 4V; 4V
2.14 The impulse response functions of four linear systems S1, S2, S3, S4 are given respectively by
where U(t) is the unit step function. Which of these systems is time invariant, causal, and stable?
(a) S1 (b) S2 (c) S3 (d) S4
2.15 An electrical system and its signal-flow graph representations are shown in Figure 2.15(a) and 2.15(b) respectively. The values of G and H, respectively are
2.16 The open-loop DC gain of a unity negative feedback system with closed-loop
13 (b) 4 9 (c) 4 (d) 13
2.17 The feedback control system in Figure 2.17 is stable
(a) for all K = 0
(b) only if K = 1
(c) only if 0 = K < 1
(d) only if 0 = K = 1
2.18 A video transmission system transmits 625 picture frames per second. Each frame consists of a 400 × 400 pixel grid with 64 intensity levels per pixel. The data rate of the system is
(a) 16 Mbps (b) 100 Mbps (c) 600 Mbps (d) 6.4 Gbps
2.19 The Nyquist sampling interval, for the signal Sinc (700t) + Sinc (500t) is
(a) 1 sec (c) 1 sec
350 (b) sec 350 700 (d) sec 175
2.20 During transmission over a communication channel, bit errors occur independently with probability p. If a block of n bits is transmitted, the probability of at most one bit error is equal to
(a) 1 (1 p) (b) p + (n 1) ( 1 p) n
(c) np(1 p) (d) (1 p) + np(1 p) n-1
2.21 The PSD and the power of a signal g(t) are, respectively, S ( ) and P . The PSD and the power of the signal ag(t) are, respectively
2.22 A material has conductivity of 10 mho/m and a relative permittivity of 4. The – 2 frequency at which the conduction current in the medium is equal to the displacement current is
(a) 45 MHz (b) 90 MHz (c) 450 MHz (d) 900 MHz
2.23 A uniform plane electromagnetic wave incident normally on a plane surface of a dielectric material is reflected with a VSWR of 3. What is the percentage of incident power that is reflected?
(a) 10% (b) 25% (c) 50% (d) 75%
2.24 A medium wave radio transmitter operating at a wavelength of 492 m has a tower antenna of height 124m. What is the radiation resistance of the antenna?
(a) 25 (b) 36.5 (c) 50 (d) 73
2.25 In a uniform linear array, four isotropic radiating elements are spaced 4 apart. The progressive phase shift between the elements required for forming the main beam at 60° off the end-fire is:
(a) - p radians (b) 2 - radians (c) 4 - radians (d) 8 - radians
SECTION – B
This section consists of TWENTY questions of FIVE marks each. Attempt ANY FIFTEEN questions. Answers must be given in the answer book provided.
3. For the circuit shown in figure 3, determine the phasors E , E , I and I .
4. The circuit shown in Figure 4 is operating in steady-state with switch S closed.
The switch S is opened at t = 0.
(a) Find i (0 ).
(c) Using nodal equations and Laplace transform approach, find an expression for the voltage across the capacitor for all t > 0.
5. The admittance parameters of a 2-port network shown in figure 5 are given by Y = 2 mho, Y = -0.5 mho, Y = 4.8 mho, Y = 1 mho. The output port is
terminated with a load admittance Y = 0.2 mho. Find E for each of the following conditions?
(a) E =10 0 V °
(b) I =10 0 A °
(c) A source 10 0 V in series with a 0.25 resistor is connected to the input port.
6. For the circuit shown in figure 6, D1 and D2 are indentical diodes with idealilty factor of unity. The thermal voltage V = 25 mV.
(a) Calculate V and V .
(b) If the reverse saturation current, I , for the diode is 1 pA, then compute the current I through the circuit.
7. An emitter-follower amplifier is shown in Figure 7. Z is the impedance looking into the base of the transistor and Z is the impedance looking into the emitter of the transistor.
(a) Draw the small signal equivalent circuit of the amplifier.
(b) Obtain an expression for Z .
(c) Obtain an expression for Z .
(d) Determined Z and Z if a capacitor C is connected across R .
8. Assume that the OP-AMP in Figure 8 is ideal.
(a) obtain an expression for v in terms of v , R, and the reverse saturation current I of the transistor.
(b) If R = 1 , I = 1 pA and the thermal voltage V = 25 mV, then what is the value of the output voltage v for an input voltage v = 1V
(c) Suppose that the transistor in the feedback path is replaced by a p-n junction diode with a reverse saturation current of I . The p-side of the diode is
connected to node A and the n-side to node B. Then what is the expression
for v in terms of v , R and I ?
9. A monochrome video signal that ranges from 0 to 8V, is digitized using an 8-bit ADC.
(a) Determine the resolution of the ADC in V/bit.
(b) Calculate the mean squared quantization error.
(c) Suppose the ADC is counter controlled. The counter is up count and positive edge triggered with clock frequency 1 MHz. What is the time taken in seconds to get a digital equivalent of 1.59 V?
10. In figure 10, the output of the oscillator, V has 10V peak amplitude with zero DC value. The transfer characteristic of the Schmitt inverter is also shown in figure
10. Assume that the JK flip-flop is resent at time t = 0.
(a) What is the period and duty cycle of the waveform V ?
(b) What is the period and duty cycle of the waveform V ?
(c) Sketch V , V and V for the duration 0 = t = 6 s. Clearly indicate the exact timings when the waveforms V and V make high-to-low and low-to-high transitions.
11. For the digital block shown in Figure 11(a), the output Y=f(S ,S ,S ,S ) where S is MSB and S is LSB. Y is given in terms of minterms as
(a) Enter the logical values in the given Karnaugh map [Fig.11(b)] for the output Y.
(b) Write down the expression for Y in sum-of products from using minimum number of terms
(c) Draw the circuit for the digital logic boxes using four 2-input NAND gates only for each of the boxes.
12. Consider the following sequence of instructions for an 8085 microprocessor based system.
Memory address Instructions
FF00 MVI, A FF H
FF02 INR A
FF03 JC FF0C H
FF06 ORI A8H
FF08 JM FF15 H
FF0B XRA A
FF0C OUT PORT 1
FF10 XRI FF H
FF12 OUT PORT 2
FF15 MVI, A FF H
FF17 ADI 02 H
FF1A JZ FF23 H
FF1D JC FF10 H
FF20 JNC FF12 H
FF24 OUT PORT 3
(a) If the program execution begins at the location FF00 H, write down the sequence of instructions which are actually executed till a HLT instruction.
(Assume all flags are initially RESET)
(b) Which of the three ports (PORT1, PORT2 and PORT3) will be loaded with data and what is the bit pattern of the data?
13. A feedback control system is shown in figure 13.
(a) Draw the signal-flow graph that represents the system.
(b) Find the total number of loops in the graph and determine the loop-gains of all the loops.
(c) Find the number of all possible combination of non-touching loops taken two at a time.
(d) Determine the transfer function of the system using the signal-flow graph.
14. Consider the feedback control system shown in figure 14.
(a) Find the transfer function of the system and its characteristic equation.
(b) Use the Routh-Hurwitz criterion to determine the range of K for which the system is stable.
15. For the feedback control system shown in figure 15, the process transfer function and the complification factor of the power amplifier is K = 0.
The design specifications required for the system are a time constant of 1 sec and a damping ratio of 0.707.
(a) Find the desired locations of the closed loop poles.
(b) Write down the required characteristic equation for the system. Hence determine the PD controller transfer function G s when K = 1.
(c) Sketch the root-locus for the system.
16. The Fourier transform G( ) of the signal g(t) in Figure 16(a) is given as Using this information and the time-shifting and
time-scaling properties, determine the Fourier transform of signals in Figures 16(b), 16(c) and 16(d).
17. The periodic modulating signal m(t) is shown in Fig.17. Using Carson‘s rule estimate B (bandwidth of the FM signal) and B (bandwidth of the PM signal)
18. A baseband signal g(t) bandlimited to 100 Hz modulates a carrier of frequency f Hz. The modulated singal g(t)cos 2 p f t is transmitted over a channel whose input x and output y are related by y = 2x + x . The spectrum of g(t) is shown in 2
Figure 18. Sketch the spectrum of the transmitted signal and the spectrum of the received signal.
19. A periodic signal g(t) is shown in Figure 19. Determine the PSD of g(t).
20. A system of three electric charges lying in a straight line is in equilibrium. Two of the charges are positive with magnitudes Q and 2Q, and are 50 cm apart. Determine the sign, magnitude and position of the third charge.
21. A medium has breakdown strength of 16 KV/m r.m.s. Its relative permeability is 1.0 and relative permittivity is 4.0 A plane electromagnetic wave is transmitted through the medium. Calculate the maximum possible power flow density and the associated magnetic filed.
22. A rectangular hollow metal waveguide has dimensions a= 2.29 cm and b = 1.02 cm. Microwave power at 10 GHz is transmitted through the waveguide in the TE mode.
(a) Calculate the cut-off wavelength and the guide wavelength for this mode.
(b) What are the other (TE or TM) modes that can propagate through the waveguide?
(c) If a = b = 2.29cm, What are the modes which can propagate through the waveguide?